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The Reliability of the Bilateral Trigeminal Roots-motor Evoked Potentials as an Organic Normalization Factor: Symmetry or Not Symmetry?

Frisardi G., Chessa G., Lumbau A., Okkesim S., Akdemir B., Kara S. , Staderini E.M. , Ferrante A. and Frisardi F. Dentistry 2014; 1-9. Impact Factor 1,22

In order to achieve a complete clinical evaluation of mastication, an in-depth neurophysiopathological assessment of masticatory muscles control is needed. Electromyography technique (EMG) is widely used for this purpose but failed to give convincing results. The aim of this work was to describe our quantitative objectivation of the motor control of the masticatory muscles and to verify the hypothesis to consider the bilateral Root Motor Evoked Potentials as an electrophysiological normalization factor

A relationship between bruxism and orofacialdystonia? A trigeminal electrophysiological approach in a case report of pineal cavernoma

Gianni Frisardi, Cesare Iani, Gianfranco Sau, Flavio Frisardi, Carlo Leornadis, Aurea Lumbau,
Paolo Enrico, Donatella Sirca, Enrico Maria Staderini and Giacomo Chessa
Behavioral and Brain Functions 2013, 9:41
Impact Factor: 2

In some clinical cases, bruxism may be correlated to central nervous system hyperexcitability,
suggesting that bruxism may represent a subclinical form of dystonia. To examine this hypothesis, we performed an
electrophysiological evaluation of the excitability of the trigeminal nervous system in a patient affected by pineal
cavernoma with pain symptoms in the orofacial region and pronounced bruxism.Electrophysiological studies included bilateral electrical transcranial stimulation of the trigeminal roots, analysis of the jaw jerk reflex, recovery cycle of masseter inhibitory reflex, and a magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain.The neuromuscular responses of the left- and right-side bilateral trigeminal motor potentials showed a high degree of symmetry in latency (1.92 ms and 1.96 ms, respectively) and amplitude (11 mV and 11.4 mV, respectively),
whereas the jaw jerk reflex amplitude of the right and left masseters was 5.1 mV and 8.9 mV, respectively

Trigeminal Electrophysiology: a 2 × 2 matrix model for differential diagnosis between temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain

Gianni Frisardi, Giacomo Chessa, Gianfranco Sau, Flavio Frisardi
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010, 11:141
Impact Factor: 1,58

Abstract Background: Pain due to temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) often has the same clinical symptoms and signs as other types of orofacial pain (OP). The possible presence of serious neurological and/or systemic organic pathologies makes differential diagnosis difficult, especially in early disease stages. In the present study, we performed a qualitative and quantitative electrophysiological evaluation of the neuromuscular responses of the trigeminal nervous system. Using the jaw jerk reflex (JJ) and the motor evoked potentials of the trigeminal roots (bR-MEPs) tests, we investigated the functional and organic responses of healthy subjects (control group) and

Assessment of nociceptive trigeminal pathways by laser-evoked potentials and laser silent periods in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders

A. Romaniello, G. Cruccu, G Frisardi, L. Arendt-Nielsen, P. Svensson
Pain 103 (2003) 31-39

Impact Factor: 5,77

We assessed the trigeminal nociceptive pathways in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and control subjects using a CO2-laser stimulator which provides a predominant activation of the nociceptive system. Fifteen patients with unilateral pain were examined in accordance with the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD and 30 gender- and age-matched individuals were included as a control group. Laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser silent periods (LSPs) after stimulation of the perioral region (V2/V3) on the painful and non-painful sides were recorded in all subjects. LEPs were evoked by low-intensity pulses (1.5J perception threshold (PTh)) and

Excitability of the central masticatory pathways in patients with painful temporomandibular disorders

G Cruccu, G Frisardi, G Pauletti, A Romaniello, M Manfredi
Pain 73 (1997) 447–454
Impact Factor: 5,77

Much is unclear about the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying painful temporomandibular disorders. In addition to various other theories, masticatory muscle dysfunction and pain have also been attributed to primary central nervous system hyperactivity. We assessed this possibility in a study using recent neurophysiological techniques. From among outpatients whose diagnosis of temporomandibular disorders had been obtained in stomatognathic facilities, we studied 10 patients with bilateral pain and 15 patients with unilateral pain, in whom electromyographic examination of theyou’d like to add

Electric versus magnetic transcranial stimulation of the trigeminal system in healthy subjects. Clinical applications in gnathology.

G Frisardi, P. Ravanazzi, G. Tognola, F. Grandori
J Oral Rehabil. 1997 Dec;24(12):920-8.
Impact Factor: 1,52

This investigation is focused on the analysis of the masseter responses evoked by means of magnetic and electric stimulation of the cortex and root of the trigeminal system of 20 healthy subjects. Moreover, in order to determine jaw elevation in centric occlusion, the analysis also focused on the motor response of the trigeminal bilateral roots evoked simultaneously using two stimulators. The masseter responses show a high level of symmetry in both latency and amplitude. The difference between the hinge axis in natural centric occlusion (CO) and in centric relation (CR) as determined by electric and magnetic transcrania

Noxious stimuli do not determine reflex cardiorespiratory effects in anesthetized rabbits

G. Raimondi, J. M. Legramante, F. Iellamo, G Frisardi, S. Cassarino, G. Peruzzi
Journal of Applied Physiology
Impact Factor: 3,75

The main purpose of this study is to examine whether the stimulation of an exclusively pain-sensing receptive field (dental pulp) could determine cardiorespiratory effects in animals in which the cortical integration of the peripheral information is abolished by deep anesthesia. In 15 anesthetized (a-chloralose and urethan) rabbits, low (3-Hz)- and high-frequency (100-Hz) electrical dental pulp stimulation was performed. Because this stimulation caused dynamic and static reflex contractions of the digastric muscles leading to jaw opening [jawopening reflex (JOR); an indirect sign of algoceptive

Pathophysiology of hemimasticatory spasm

G. Cruccu, M. Inghilleri, A. Berardelli, G. Pauletti, C. Casali, P. Coratti, G. Frisardi, P.D. Thompson, M. Manfredi

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1994 Jan;57(1):43-50.
Impact Factor: 4,73

Two patients aged 21 and 50 years presented with facial hemiatrophy and unilateral spasms of the masticatory muscles. Masticatory muscle biopsy showed normal findings in both patients and facial skin biopsy specimens only showed atrophy, although morphoea (localised facial scleroderma) had been diagnosed nine years previously in the second patient. The involuntary movements consisted of brief twitches and prolonged contractions clinically and electromyographically similar to those of hemifacial spasm and cramps

Side asymmetry of the jaw jerk in human craniomandibular dysfunction

G. Cruccu, G. Frisardi, D. van Steenberghe
Arch Oral Biol. 1992 Apr;37(4):257-62.
Impact Factor: 1,60

The jaw jerk elicited by tapping the chin with a reflex hammer was electromyographically recorded in 14 patients with craniomandibular dysfunction, who were selected because of their strictly unilateral symptoms. Mandibular deviation, as measured by means of a kinesiograph, was on the same side as the pain. Neurological and neurophysiological investigations, including the recording of masseter motor potentials evoked by transcranial stimulation, showed normal function of the sensory and motor trigeminal nerve fibres. Latency and amplitude of the jaw jerk recorded in postural position and intercuspal occlusion were, respectively

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